Convert repository files to UTF8

I recently had to convert a repository from Windows-1252 to UTF-8. The encoding was causing our web pages not to render characters outside of the 1252 set incorrectly. So, I wrote a script to do this!

What it does: It accepts a path -Path and recursively searches for all files under that path. It then checks to see if that file is ignored in the .gitignore. If not, it moves on to checking if it's ascii. If it passes that test, it will grab the contents and write them as UTF-8.

EDIT: I now filter for designer and resx files. For my purpose, these couldn't get converted because of some special characters.

Feel free to use and offer any feedback about it.



Directory to start recursive search. This directory is assumed valid and a git repository.


A switch to output reasons why a file was skipped.

Here's the gist:

Azure DNS Zone Powershell Scripts

I made some Azure DNS Powershell scripts! Why? Because I had to migrate hundreds of records from one DNS provider to Azure. The previous DNS provider allowed duplicate CNAME vs A/TXT/MX records. It was a MESS. I wanted a way to import, test, and clear records repeatedly so that I could validate that no DNS settings would change on migration.

The README on the repo has more information. Feel free to reach out with questions.

Link: AzureDnsTools

Cronos - ASP.NET Core Application

Cronos - ASP.NET Core Application

I wrote an core application. It's live at It is an app that helps you create a chronological playlist based on an artist for Spotify. The source is up at I won't go into much detail here since the readme covers a lot on github.

Just some backstory: A friend had posted a request on facebook that Spotify should offer this ability. I figured it would be a fun project so I started working on it in spare time. 1 month later, I had a working application. The process went very smooth due to a library I found at It's very well written and I really appreciate the work that went into it. I had started futzing around with a proof of concept using RestSharp when I figured someone else had already done the dirty work. Sure enough, this great library fell into my lap after a quick google search.

You'll see from the source, I put some boilerplate session handling in CronosBaseController.cs. I liked the way that turned out, even though I didn't use it for any other controllers. I'm getting into the habit of hiding code that won't change and is on a different scope from the rest. I found it easier to work in HomeController.cs without that session code.

The code could use some refactoring. It also needs tests. I released it in a beta sense, and based on the fanfare (avg 1 user per day) I can guess it's not going to get much use. So I'll leave it where it stands and move on to the next project.

Exceptions in Web API

Reference Repository

I was recently asked a technical question about Exception handling in Web API that I didn't have much knowledge in. This is in regards to the wonderful world of Exception Handlers. These beauties are global handlers for your Web API project that can/will/should handle your exceptions globally for you. The application of these is to not only write more predictable code, but it heavily reinforces the DRY principle. I can't tell you how many times I've written the same return UnAuthorized() or return BadRequest() for several routes just to have to later come back through and refactor them all. By global implementing custom (or included) exceptions, we can get consistent behavior from the application via the exception handler that would normally be left up to the controller.

There are grandients leading up to an exception handler too. There are attribute filters where you can specify exception handling down to the controller or method (depending upon which you decorate). There is also exception logging that can be implemented. I explore all these options in the github respository linked above.

You may notice that the global exception handler gets called for all of the thrown exceptions. Awesome detective work! While it is global to the app, I've coded it to filter based on level 4 exceptions to show an example of gracefully handling the exception.

Final note: By globally logging and handling your exceptions, you're giving better usability to the caller along with better visibility to your developer. I am foaming at the mount at implementing an Exception Logger that shoots that exception over to ElasticSearch. This would be a great way to mock Application Insights: gaining telemetry data on the fly.

This code is provided as-is and is in no way intended for a production environment. It was written for readability and simplicity and does not implement any security checks. Simplicity was favored over design patterns and principles. So use at your own risk!

More information is available in the file in the repository linked above.

Merging IOptions<T> settings from multiple sources

.NET Core rocks for so many reasons. One thing I've been using recently is demoing updates and real-world debugging via Azure and then deploying to my VPS in a Docker container somewhere else. I don't generate enough traffic to make an Azure web service more affordable than a VPS, which is why I don't run everything from the cloud. So, QA is a WebApp running on Azure in a cheap tier, which I use my credits from my MSDN subscription for, then my production is in Docker running from the same box as this blog.

.NET Core makes configuration between these two sources so simple. If you know how to use environment variables in docker, in an OS, and in a cloud service (like Azure), then you can deploy any of those ways without changing anything at build or run time (aside from initial set-up).

Here's the options class I'm dealing with:

public class EmailSettings
    public string MailGunApiKey { get; set; }
    public string ApiBaseUri { get; set; }
    public string From { get; set; }
    public string Domain { get; set; }
    public string RecaptchaApiKey { get; set; }
    public bool IsValid()
        return !string.IsNullOrEmpty(MailGunApiKey) &&
            !string.IsNullOrEmpty(ApiBaseUri) &&
            !string.IsNullOrEmpty(From) &&
            !string.IsNullOrEmpty(Domain) &&

Super simple, I have a form on a web page to email me. I implemented ReCaptcha v2 to cut down on spam and I use the MailGun API to send the email. ApiBaseUri is the base API URL for MailGun, From is the email I'm sending to (me), Domain is the domain I'm sending from, and the two ApiKey properties are for each API, respectively.

The hurdle I had to jump across yesterday dealt with IOptions<T>. Typically, you can easily deserialize an object from json into your settings object with a one-liner. Then you can use Dependency Injection to access it in a controller. Here's an example:


public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)

This works great when all of your properties in that Options class are in one location with equal security requirements. As you can see, I created a class, though, where some properties could be stored in a file and others (like the private api keys) needed to be stored as environment variables, to avoid being committed to source. What I wanted was the portability and ease to store many config variables in a file with the security of keeping some out of source and directly on the host.

So, I came up with a solution of blending sources into one class so that they would be available as one. In order to load my api keys separately, this is what I added in place of the statement noted above:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
    services.Configure<EmailSettings>(options=> {

        options.ApiBaseUri = Configuration["EmailSettings:ApiBaseUri"];
        options.From = Configuration["EmailSettings:From"];
        options.Domain = Configuration["EmailSettings:Domain"];
        options.MailGunApiKey = Configuration["EmailSettings:MailGunApiKey"];
        options.RecaptchaApiKey = Configuration["EmailSettings:RecaptchaApiKey"];
        if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(options.MailGunApiKey) &&  Configuration.GetValue<string>("MAILGUN_API_KEY") != null)
            options.MailGunApiKey = Configuration.GetValue<string>("MAILGUN_API_KEY");
        if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(options.RecaptchaApiKey) && Configuration.GetValue<string>("RECAPTCHA_API_KEY") != null)
            options.RecaptchaApiKey = Configuration.GetValue<string>("RECAPTCHA_API_KEY");


From this I'm getting exactly what I want from each "source". If I want to set variables in my file, I can and they will populate and not be overwritten by environment variables. Otherwise, it checks for environment variables too. I listed out all of these properties to show that you can also mix and match what you grab from JSON on a per-property level.

To finish this up, I call the EmailSetting.IsValid() method in my page generation to decide whether to build the html for the email form if one of these things is missing. That way, I won't have unnecessary broken calls to my API and it's also a quick way to see if something is missing. Combining this method in production with UserSecrets in Development is an excellent way to manage your dev and prod configs separately and securely.

More info on Configuration in .NET Core 2 can be found here.